Moths are known to be attracted to artificial light at night. Once flying around a lamp, a moth is exposed to an increased predation risk, for example by bats which are known to forage around streetlights. In addition there are indications that reproduction in moths is affected by light. The general question is what the effects are of exposure to artificial light on the population level.
Moths play an central role in the food web. Caterpillars are important herbivores, and simultaneously are hosts for parasites and are food for birds. Adult moths are important prey for bats and other nocturnal birds. Therefore, the in-depth research project on effects of light on moths covers a large and important part of the food chain.